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Region comprising Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

Origin of term

It has its origins at the end of the 19th century and refers to a hegemonic position of Russia in the post-Soviet space.

Physical characteristics

The region is divided into a large area of plains and plateaus that occupy the entire western and northern part, losing height towards the Arctic, and a discontinuous mountain belt that frames these flat areas to the south and east. The Ural Mountains stretch from north to south and divide the Russian Plain (to the west) and the West Siberian Lowlands. They have a clearly mountainous character Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

There is an extensive fluvial network facing north, that is, towards the Arctic Ocean, where the great rivers that cross Siberia drain: the Lena, the Ob and the Yeniséi. In the European zone of Russia, some large rivers that run from north to south stand out: the Volga, the Don, the Dnieper and the Dniester. Likewise, there are about 200 thousand lakes in the region, highlighting the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, the Baikal, the Ladoga, the Balkhash and the Onega.

Socio-cultural aspects

The population of Central Asian countries is made up mostly of ethnic Turkic groups. The proliferation of various enclaves of ethnic minorities (Abkhazians in Georgia, Armenians in Azerbaijan, Ossetians in Georgia, etc.) have made this a hot area due to interethnic and territorial conflicts after its disintegration from the USSR. In Eastern Europe, Belarusians and Ukrainians are by far the majority in their respective states despite the large presence of Russians. Descendants of Slavic peoples make up the majority of the Russian population and the vast territory of the country concentrates 80% of its population in the European sector (25% of the territory), while the great plains of Siberia constitute the great population void of Russia .

Political features

The Central Asian republics are of great energetic and strategic importance. With strong presidential regimes in which their leaders were part of the political leadership of the Soviet Union. The Caucasus is the most conflictive subregion of Eurasia, derived from territorial disputes between the countries that comprise it. Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus are at a crossroads between Brussels and Moscow. Russia, the Eurasian giant, a world apart in its own right, is the main political and economic ally for many countries in the region and also acts as a mediator when there are conflicts between them.